微软的云平台媒体服务为流媒体服务提供了多种选择,在使用流媒体服务为企业做流媒体方案时,首先需要确认要流媒体接收目标,如针对广大iOS, Android移动设备,由于它们都支持HLS 格式的流媒体,基于该认知,比较推荐的是使用动态封装,但是必须额外添加流式处理单元,方法是在Azure 门户,点击媒体服务,然后点击所使用的媒体服务,选择流式处理端点标签页,选择需要编辑的流媒体端点,然后再缩放标签页下设置,如下截图所示

使用流式处理单元需要支付一定的费用,且最小单元就是200mbps,根据文档Windows Azure Media Services Pricing Details内容引用如下,我们可以计算出:在使用1个流式处理单元,使用H264 Adaptive Bitrate MP4 Set 720p(范围从 3400 kbps 到 400 kbps)编码方式的情况下,同时可以观看流媒体的客户端个数约为47 个(160/3.4)。

Question: How do I estimate # of on-demand streaming reserved unit I need?

Answer: For the most conservative estimate you can go directly with SLA limitations – i.e. total bandwidth is 160 Mbps * # of RU’s. To obtain an initial estimate you can take the # of concurrent customers * top bitrate that you are encoding video at. For most video business, I think it is always better to be conservative first and if you end up over provisioning, you could always reduce # of reserved unit.

那么如果仅针对少数客户端,可能总数达不到47个,那么出于节省开支的目的,我们还有其他方法吗?答案是肯定的,本文将详细介绍该方案。

针对iOS, Android 客户端,同时观看的客户端数比较少的点播情况下,我们可以使用静态封装方法将编码后的文件包装成HLS即可,这样就可以不使用流式处理单元,需要注意的是,由于Microsoft Azure Media Packager 和 Microsoft Azure Media Encryptor 将在 2015 年 11 月 1 日终结使用,所以本文方案在此日期之后不推荐使用。

在封装为HLS格式之前,必须先将媒体文件转码成smooth streaming 格式,再使用“Windows Azure Media Packager”将其封装为HLS,然后再在iOS 设备和Android 设备上使用自带的浏览器测试HLS 格式的流媒体URL。所以整个流程为:

原始媒体文件——>转码为MP4文件——>将MP4编码为SmoothStreaming 格式——>将SmoothStreaming格式输出封装为HLS格式——>获取静态HLS流媒体URL——>设备测试

需要使用到2个配置文件:

  1. 1.       MP4转为smooth streaming 格式的配置文件:MediaPackager_MP4ToSmooth.xml,内容如下:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″?>

<taskDefinition xmlns=”http://schemas.microsoft.com/iis/media/v4/TM/TaskDefinition#”>

<name>MP4 to Smooth Streams</name>

<id>5e1e1a1c-bba6-11df-8991-0019d1916af0</id>

<description xml:lang=”en” />

<inputFolder />

<properties namespace=”http://schemas.microsoft.com/iis/media/V4/TM/MP4ToSmooth#” prefix=”mp4″>

<property name=”keepSourceNames” value=”false” />

</properties>

<taskCode>

<type>Microsoft.Web.Media.TransformManager.MP4toSmooth.MP4toSmooth_Task, Microsoft.Web.Media.TransformManager.MP4toSmooth, Version=1.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35</type>

</taskCode>

</taskDefinition>

  1. 2.       packager 配置文件MediaPackager_MP4ToSmooth.xml,内容如下:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″ ?>

<taskDefinition xmlns=”http://schemas.microsoft.com/iis/media/v4/TM/TaskDefinition#”>

<name>Smooth Streams to Apple HTTP Live Streams</name>

<id>A72D7A5D-3022-45f2-89B4-1DDC5457C111</id>

<description xml:lang=”en”>Converts on-demand Smooth Streams encoded with H.264 (AVC) video and AAC-LC audio codecs to Apple HTTP Live Streams (MPEG-2 TS) and creates an Apple HTTP Live Streaming playlist (.m3u8) file for the converted presentation.</description>

<inputDirectory></inputDirectory>

<outputFolder>TS_Out</outputFolder>

<properties namespace=”http://schemas.microsoft.com/iis/media/AppleHTTP#” prefix=”hls”>

<property name=”maxbitrate” required=”true” value=”6600000″ helpText=”The maximum bit rate, in bits per second (bps), to be converted to MPEG-2 TS. On-demand Smooth Streams at or below this value are converted to MPEG-2 TS segments. Smooth Streams above this value are not converted. Most Apple devices can play media encoded at bit rates up to 1,600 Kbps.”/>

<property name=”manifest” required=”false” value=”” helpText=”The file name to use for the converted Apple HTTP Live Streaming playlist file (a file with an .m3u8 file name extension). If no value is specified, the following default value is used: &lt;ISM_file_name&gt;-m3u8-aapl.m3u8″/>

<property name=”segment” required=”false” value=”10″ helpText=”The duration of each MPEG-2 TS segment, in seconds. 10 seconds is the Apple-recommended setting for most Apple mobile digital devices.”/>

<property name=”log”  required=”false” value=”” helpText=”The file name to use for a log file (with a .log file name extension) that records the conversion activity. If you specify a log file name, the file is stored in the task output folder.” />

<property name=”encrypt”  required=”false” value=”false” helpText=”Enables encryption of MPEG-2 TS segments by using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 128-bit key (AES-128).” />

<property name=”pid”  required=”false” value=”” helpText=”The program ID of the MPEG-2 TS presentation. Different encodings of MPEG-2 TS streams in the same presentation use the same program ID so that clients can easily switch between bit rates.” />

<property name=”codecs”  required=”false” value=”false” helpText=”Enables codec format identifiers, as defined by RFC 4281, to be included in the Apple HTTP Live Streaming playlist (.m3u8) file.” />

<property name=”backwardcompatible”  required=”false” value=”false” helpText=”Enables playback of the MPEG-2 TS presentation on devices that use the Apple iOS 3.0 mobile operating system.” />

<property name=”allowcaching”  required=”false” value=”true” helpText=”Enables the MPEG-2 TS segments to be cached on Apple devices for later playback.” />

<property name=”key”  required=”false” value=”” helpText=”The hexadecimal representation of the 16-octet content key value that is used for encryption.” />

<property name=”keyuri”  required=”false” value=”” helpText=”An alternate URI to be used by clients for downloading the key file. If no value is specified, it is assumed that the Live Smooth Streaming publishing point provides the key file.” />

<property name=”overwrite”  required=”false” value=”true” helpText=”Enables existing files in the output folder to be overwritten if converted output files have identical file names.” />

</properties>

<taskCode>

<type>Microsoft.Web.Media.TransformManager.SmoothToHLS.SmoothToHLSTask, Microsoft.Web.Media.TransformManager.SmoothToHLS, Version=1.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35</type>

</taskCode>

</taskDefinition>

代码可以参考如下:(使用流媒体服务.Net SDK,注意指定媒体服务的账号名字及key)

class Program

{

private static string accName = “[MediaService accountName]”;

private static string accKey = “[MediaService accountKey]”;

private static readonly string _supportFiles =

Path.GetFullPath(@”../..\..\..\..\”);

// Paths to support files (within the above base path). You can use

// the provided sample media files from the “supportFiles” folder, or

// provide paths to your own media files below to run these samples.

private static readonly string singleInputFilePath =

Path.GetFullPath(_supportFiles + @”\azure.wmv”);

private static readonly string outputPath = _supportFiles;

private static CloudMediaContext context;

static void Main(string[] args)

{

context = new CloudMediaContext(accName, accKey);

string inputAssetId = CreateAssetAndUploadFile(context);

//encode to MP4

IJob job = EncodeToMp4(context, inputAssetId);

IAsset mp4Output = job.OutputMediaAssets.FirstOrDefault();

//convert MP4 to smooth streaming

IJob jobSS = ConvertMP4toSmooth(context, mp4Output, mp4Output.Id);

IAsset ssAsset = jobSS.OutputMediaAssets.FirstOrDefault();

string SSStreamingUrlStatic = GetStaticSS(context, ssAsset.Id, LocatorType.OnDemandOrigin);

//package ss to HLS-Static Packaging

IJob jobHLS = SmoothToHLS(context, ssAsset.Id, ssAsset);

var hlsAsset = jobHLS.OutputMediaAssets.FirstOrDefault();

string hlsStreamingUrlStatic = GetStaticHLS(context, hlsAsset.Id, LocatorType.OnDemandOrigin);

string content = “\n Static Packaging Smooth Streaming Url:    \n” + SSStreamingUrlStatic +

“\n Static Packaging HLS Url:    \n” + hlsStreamingUrlStatic +

“\n Mp4 Url:    \n” + mp4StreamingUrl;

Console.WriteLine(“\n Static Packaging Smooth Streaming Url:    \n” + SSStreamingUrlStatic);

Console.WriteLine(“\n Static Packaging HLS Url:    \n” + hlsStreamingUrlStatic);

Console.WriteLine(“\n Mp4 Url:    \n” + mp4StreamingUrl);

Console.WriteLine(“\n Smooth Url: \n” + smoothStreamingUrl);

string outFilePath = Path.GetFullPath(outputPath + @”\” + “StreamingUrl.txt”);

WriteToFile(outFilePath, content);

Console.ReadKey();

Console.ReadKey();

}

private static string CreateAssetAndUploadFile(CloudMediaContext context)

{

var assetName = Path.GetFileNameWithoutExtension(singleInputFilePath);

var inputAsset = context.Assets.Create(assetName, AssetCreationOptions.None);

var assetFile = inputAsset.AssetFiles.Create(Path.GetFileName(singleInputFilePath));

assetFile.UploadProgressChanged += new EventHandler<UploadProgressChangedEventArgs>(assetFile_UploadProgressChanged);

assetFile.Upload(singleInputFilePath);

return inputAsset.Id;

}

static void assetFile_UploadProgressChanged(object sender, UploadProgressChangedEventArgs e)

{

Console.WriteLine(string.Format(“{0}   Progress: {1:0}   Time: {2}”, ((IAssetFile)sender).Name, e.Progress, DateTime.UtcNow.ToString(@”yyyy_M_d__hh_mm_ss”)));

}

private static IJob EncodeToMp4(CloudMediaContext context, string inputAssetId)

{

var inputAsset = context.Assets.Where(a => a.Id == inputAssetId).FirstOrDefault();

if (inputAsset == null)

throw new ArgumentException(“Could not find assetId: ” + inputAssetId);

var encodingPreset = “H264 Adaptive Bitrate MP4 Set 720p”;

//var encodingPreset = “H264 Broadband 720p”;

IJob job = context.Jobs.Create(“.Net Encoding  ” + inputAsset.Name + ” to MP4 job”);

IMediaProcessor latestWameMediaProcessor = (from p in context.MediaProcessors where p.Name == “Windows Azure Media Encoder” select p).ToList()

.OrderBy(wame => new Version(wame.Version)).LastOrDefault();

ITask encodeTask = job.Tasks.AddNew(“.Net Encoding to Mp4 Task “, latestWameMediaProcessor, encodingPreset, TaskOptions.None);

encodeTask.InputAssets.Add(inputAsset);

encodeTask.OutputAssets.AddNew(inputAsset.Name + ” as ” + ” mp4 output asset”, AssetCreationOptions.None);

job.StateChanged += new EventHandler<JobStateChangedEventArgs>(JobStateChanged);

job.Submit();

job.GetExecutionProgressTask(CancellationToken.None).Wait();

return job;

}

private static IJob ConvertMP4toSmooth(CloudMediaContext context, IAsset assetToConvert, string inputAssetId)

{

var inputAsset = context.Assets.Where(a => a.Id == inputAssetId).FirstOrDefault();

if (inputAsset == null)

throw new ArgumentException(“Could not find assetId: ” + inputAssetId);

IJob job = context.Jobs.Create(“Conversion  ” + inputAsset.Name + ” to Smooth Streaming job”);

string smoothconfig = Path.GetFullPath(_supportFiles + @”\MediaPackager_MP4ToSmooth.xml”);

string configMp4ToSmooth = File.ReadAllText(Path.GetFullPath(smoothconfig));

IMediaProcessor LatestPackager = (from p in context.MediaProcessors where p.Name == “Windows Azure Media Packager” select p).ToList()

.OrderBy(wame => new Version(wame.Version)).LastOrDefault();

ITask convertTask = job.Tasks.AddNew(“.Net Conversion MP4 to Smooth Streaming Task for ” + inputAsset.Name,

LatestPackager, configMp4ToSmooth, TaskOptions.None);

convertTask.InputAssets.Add(assetToConvert);

convertTask.OutputAssets.AddNew(“.Net output-MP4 converted Smooth Streaming-” + inputAsset.Name, AssetCreationOptions.None);

job.StateChanged += new EventHandler<JobStateChangedEventArgs>(JobStateChanged);

job.Submit();

job.GetExecutionProgressTask(CancellationToken.None).Wait();

return job;

}

private static IJob SmoothToHLS(CloudMediaContext context, string inputAssetId, IAsset asset)

{

var inputAsset = context.Assets.Where(a => a.Id == inputAssetId).FirstOrDefault();

if (inputAsset == null)

throw new ArgumentException(“Could not find assetId: ” + inputAssetId);

var conversionPreset = “HLS”;

IJob job = context.Jobs.Create(“Conversion ” + inputAsset.Name + ” to ” + conversionPreset);

//var ssOutput = encodeTask.OutputAssets.AddNew(“output-Silverlight-” + inputAsset.Name,

//     AssetCreationOptions.None);

string smooth2HLSFilePath = Path.GetFullPath(_supportFiles + @”\MediaPackager_SmoothToHLS.xml”);

var packager = context.MediaProcessors.Where(m => m.Name == “Windows Azure Media Packager”).First();

var conversionTask = job.Tasks.AddNew(“Conversion Task for ” + inputAsset.Name, packager,

File.ReadAllText(smooth2HLSFilePath), TaskOptions.None);

conversionTask.InputAssets.Add(asset);

conversionTask.OutputAssets.AddNew(

“output-HLS-” + inputAsset.Name, AssetCreationOptions.None);

job.StateChanged += new EventHandler<JobStateChangedEventArgs>(JobStateChanged);

job.Submit();

job.GetExecutionProgressTask(CancellationToken.None).Wait();

return job;

}

static void JobStateChanged(object sender, JobStateChangedEventArgs e)

{

Console.WriteLine(string.Format(“{0}\n  State: {1}\n  Time: {2}\n\n”,

((IJob)sender).Name, e.CurrentState, DateTime.UtcNow.ToString(@”yyyy_M_d__hh_mm_ss”)));

}

static void WriteToFile(string outFilePath, string fileContent)

{

StreamWriter sr = File.CreateText(outFilePath);

sr.Write(fileContent);

sr.Close();

}

private static string GetStaticSS(CloudMediaContext context, string outputAssetId, LocatorType type)

{

var daysForWhichStreamingUrlIsActive = 365;

var outputAsset = context.Assets.Where(a => a.Id == outputAssetId).FirstOrDefault();

var accessPolicy = context.AccessPolicies.Create(outputAsset.Name,

TimeSpan.FromDays(daysForWhichStreamingUrlIsActive),

AccessPermissions.Read | AccessPermissions.List);

var assetFiles = outputAsset.AssetFiles.ToList();

if (type == LocatorType.OnDemandOrigin)

{

var assetFile = assetFiles.Where(f => f.Name.ToLower().EndsWith(“.ism”)).FirstOrDefault();

if (assetFile != null)

{

var locator = context.Locators.CreateLocator(LocatorType.OnDemandOrigin, outputAsset, accessPolicy);

Uri smoothUri = new Uri(locator.Path + assetFile.Name + “/manifest”);

return smoothUri.ToString();

}

}

if (type == LocatorType.Sas)

{

var mp4Files = assetFiles.Where(f => f.Name.ToLower().EndsWith(“.mp4″)).ToList();

var assetFile = mp4Files.OrderBy(f => f.ContentFileSize).LastOrDefault(); //Get Largest File

if (assetFile != null)

{

var locator = context.Locators.CreateLocator(LocatorType.Sas, outputAsset, accessPolicy);

var mp4Uri = new UriBuilder(locator.Path);

mp4Uri.Path += “/” + assetFile.Name;

return mp4Uri.ToString();

}

}

return string.Empty;

}

private static string GetStaticHLS(CloudMediaContext context, string outputAssetId, LocatorType type)

{

var daysForWhichStreamingUrlIsActive = 365;

var outputAsset = context.Assets.Where(a => a.Id == outputAssetId).FirstOrDefault();

var accessPolicy = context.AccessPolicies.Create(outputAsset.Name,

TimeSpan.FromDays(daysForWhichStreamingUrlIsActive),

AccessPermissions.Read | AccessPermissions.List);

var assetFiles = outputAsset.AssetFiles.ToList();

foreach (var f in assetFiles.Where(x => x.Name.EndsWith(“.ism”)))

{

if (f.Name.Contains(“m3u8″))

{

#region publish HLS to a WAMS origin

Console.WriteLine(“will create a new locator for HLS”);

var originLocator = context.Locators.CreateLocator(LocatorType.OnDemandOrigin, outputAsset, accessPolicy);

string urlForClientStreaming = originLocator.Path + f.Name

+ “/manifest(format=m3u8-aapl)”;

return urlForClientStreaming.ToString();

#endregion

}

}

return string.Empty;

}

}

最终输出如:http://test20140404.origin.mediaservices.windows.net/1dcaef59-56b1-4bf9-9dd2-8502d62d5095/azure-m3u8-aapl.ism/manifest(format=m3u8-aapl)

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