norflash 烧写

(7) Nor Flash指令

Nor Flash 的命令经常用于烧写数据到Nor Flash 。

flinfo  打印Flash存储器的信息,并列出所有Sector。

flinfo  N 单独打Flash存储器N Block的信息。(在有多块Nor Flash时使用)

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo

Bank # 1: SST: 1x SST39VF1601 (2MB)

Size: 2 MB in 32 Sectors

Sector Start Addresses:

00000000 (RO) 00010000 (RO) 00020000 (RO) 00030000 (RO) 00040000

00050000 00060000 (RO) 00070000 (RO) 00080000 00090000

000A0000 000B0000 000C0000 000D0000 000E0000

000F0000 00100000 00110000 00120000 00130000

00140000 00150000 00160000 00170000 00180000

00190000 001A0000 001B0000 001C0000 001D0000

001E0000 001F0000

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo 1

Bank # 1: SST: 1x SST39VF1601 (2MB)

Size: 2 MB in 32 Sectors

Sector Start Addresses:

00000000 (RO) 00010000 (RO) 00020000 (RO) 00030000 (RO) 00040000

00050000 00060000 (RO) 00070000 (RO) 00080000 00090000

000A0000 000B0000 000C0000 000D0000 000E0000

000F0000 00100000 00110000 00120000 00130000

00140000 00150000 00160000 00170000 00180000

00190000 001A0000 001B0000 001C0000 001D0000

001E0000 001F0000

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo 2

Only FLASH Banks # 1 ... # 1 supported

后面带有(RO)的说明这个Sector已经写保护了。

因为Nor Flash的读取接口和SDRAM是一样的,所以Nor Flash的读取也是使用md命令。范例如下:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x0 20

00000000: 12 00 00 ea 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 ................

00000010: 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 ................

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md 0x0 20

00000000: ea000012 e59ff014 e59ff014 e59ff014 ................

00000010: e59ff014 e59ff014 e59ff014 e59ff014 ................

00000020: 33f80260 33f802c0 33f80320 33f80380 `..3...3 ..3...3

00000030: 33f803e0 33f80440 33f804a0 deadbeef ...3@..3...3....

00000040: 33f80000 33f80000 33fbe8dc 3400374c ...3...3...3L7.4

00000050: e10f0000 e3c0001f e38000d3 e129f000 ..............).

00000060: e3a00453 e3a01000 e5801000 e3e01000 S...............

00000070: e59f0488 e5801000 e59f1484 e59f0484 ................

但由于Nor Flash的烧写时序和SDRAM的写入不同,烧写Nor  Flash 不能使用mm等命令,只能使用cp命令从内存拷贝到Nor Flash,而且烧写之前必须解除保护并擦除!命令如下:

protect :对Flash 写保护的操作,可以使能和解除写保护。

格式:

protect on/off start end

protect on/off start +end

protect on/off N:SF[-SL]

protect on/off bank N

protect on/off all

第1 个参数on 代表使能写保护;off 代表解除写保护。

第2 、3 参数是指定Flash 写保护操作范围

start end是照起始地址和结束地址定义范围,start是擦除块的起始地址;end 是擦除末尾块的结束地址。

例如:擦除Sector 2和Sector 3区域命令为erase 20000 3ffff 。

start +end是照起始地址和操作字节数定义范围,这种方式最常用。start是擦除块的起始地址;end 是擦除的字节数。

例如:擦除Sector 2和Sector 3区域命令为erase 20000  +20000

N:SF[-SL]是按照组和扇区,N 表示Flash 的Block号,SF 表示擦除起始Sector号,SL 表示擦除结束Sector号。

例如:擦除Block1 的Sector 2和Sector 3区域命令为erase 1:2-3。

bank N是擦除整个Block,擦除Block号为N 的整个Flash。

all是擦除全部Flash。

注意:Nor Flash擦除的最小单位是Sector,也就是0x10000字节,如果你定义的大小不满1 Sector或超过Sector的边界,那么被定义到的Sector会被全部擦除。

erase  :擦除Flash的命令

格式:

erase start end

erase start +end

erase N:SF[-SL]

erase bank N

erase all

参数是指定Flash 擦除操作范围,跟写保护的方式相同。

以下的范例将mini2440的Nor Flash的Sector 16写保护,再解除保护,擦除数据,最后将起始的20字节拷贝到Sector 16。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo 1

Bank # 1: SST: 1x SST39VF1601 (2MB)

Size: 2 MB in 32 Sectors

Sector Start Addresses:

00000000 (RO) 00010000 (RO) 00020000 (RO) 00030000 (RO) 00040000

00050000 00060000 (RO) 00070000 (RO) 00080000 00090000

000A0000 000B0000 000C0000 000D0000 000E0000

000F0000 00100000 00110000 00120000 00130000

00140000 00150000 00160000 00170000 00180000

00190000 001A0000 001B0000 001C0000 001D0000

001E0000 001F0000

[u-boot@MINI2440]# protect on 1:16-16

Protect Flash Sectors 16-16 in Bank # 1

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo 1

Bank # 1: SST: 1x SST39VF1601 (2MB)

Size: 2 MB in 32 Sectors

Sector Start Addresses:

00000000 (RO) 00010000 (RO) 00020000 (RO) 00030000 (RO) 00040000

00050000 00060000 (RO) 00070000 (RO) 00080000 00090000

000A0000 000B0000 000C0000 000D0000 000E0000

000F0000 00100000 (RO) 00110000 00120000 00130000

00140000 00150000 00160000 00170000 00180000

00190000 001A0000 001B0000 001C0000 001D0000

001E0000 001F0000

[u-boot@MINI2440]# protect off 0x100000 0x10ffff

Un-Protect Flash Sectors 16-16 in Bank # 1

[u-boot@MINI2440]# flinfo 1

Bank # 1: SST: 1x SST39VF1601 (2MB)

Size: 2 MB in 32 Sectors

Sector Start Addresses:

00000000 (RO) 00010000 (RO) 00020000 (RO) 00030000 (RO) 00040000

00050000 00060000 (RO) 00070000 (RO) 00080000 00090000

000A0000 000B0000 000C0000 000D0000 000E0000

000F0000 00100000 00110000 00120000 00130000

00140000 00150000 00160000 00170000 00180000

00190000 001A0000 001B0000 001C0000 001D0000

001E0000 001F0000

[u-boot@MINI2440]# erase 0x100000 +20

Erasing sector 16 ... ok.

Erased 1 sectors

[u-boot@MINI2440]# cp.b 0x0 0x100000 0x20

Copy to Flash... done

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 100000 20

00100000: 12 00 00 ea 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 ................

00100010: 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 14 f0 9f e5 ................

(8) USB 操作指令

指令

功能

usb reset 初始化USB控制器

usb stop [f]        关闭USB控制器

usb tree  已连接的USB设备树

usb info [dev]      显示USB设备[dev]的信息

usb storage         显示已连接的USB存储设备

usb dev [dev]       显示和设置当前USB存储设备

usb part [dev]      显示USB存储设备[dev]的分区信息

usb read addr blk# cnt        读取USB存储设备数据

在所有的命令使用前,必须先插入USB设备,然后使用:usb reset,以初始化USB控制器,获取设备信息。

我将一个4G的kingstonU盘(可引导盘)插入 mini2440,然后读取他的头512 字节(MBR):

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb reset

(Re)start USB...

USB: scanning bus for devices... 2 USB Device(s) found

scanning bus for storage devices... 1 Storage Device(s) found

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb tree

Device Tree:

1 Hub (12 Mb/s, 0mA)

| OHCI Root Hub

|

+-2 Mass Storage (12 Mb/s, 100mA)

Kingston DT 101 II 0019E02CB6EB5B8B1B120051

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb info

1: Hub, USB Revision 1.10

- OHCI Root Hub

- Class: Hub

- PacketSize: 8 Configurations: 1

- Vendor: 0x0000 Product 0x0000 Version 0.0

Configuration: 1

- Interfaces: 1 Self Powered 0mA

Interface: 0

- Alternate Setting 0, Endpoints: 1

- Class Hub

- Endpoint 1 In Interrupt MaxPacket 2 Interval 255ms

2: Mass Storage, USB Revision 2.0

- Kingston DT 101 II 0019E02CB6EB5B8B1B120051

- Class: (from Interface) Mass Storage

- PacketSize: 64 Configurations: 1

- Vendor: 0x0951 Product 0x1613 Version 1.0

Configuration: 1

- Interfaces: 1 Bus Powered 100mA

Interface: 0

- Alternate Setting 0, Endpoints: 2

- Class Mass Storage, Transp. SCSI, Bulk only

- Endpoint 1 In Bulk MaxPacket 64

- Endpoint 2 Out Bulk MaxPacket 64

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb storage

Device 0: Vendor: Kingston Rev: PMAP Prod: DT 101 II

Type: Removable Hard Disk

Capacity: 3875.0 MB = 3.7 GB (7936000 x 512)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb dev 0

USB device 0:

Device 0: Vendor: Kingston Rev: PMAP Prod: DT 101 II

Type: Removable Hard Disk

Capacity: 3875.0 MB = 3.7 GB (7936000 x 512)

... is now current device

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb part 0

print_part of 0

Partition Map for USB device 0 -- Partition Type: DOS

Partition Start Sector Num Sectors Type

4 63 7935937 c

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb read 0x30008000 0 200

USB read: device 0 block # 0, count 512 ... .........................

512 blocks read: OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x30008000 200

30008000: fa 31 c0 8e d8 8e c0 8e d0 bc 00 7c fb fc 89 e6

.1.........|....

30008010: bf 00 06 b9 00 01 f3 a5 ea dc 06 00 00 10 00 01

................

30008020: 00 00 7c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 3f 00

..|...........?.

30008030: ff 00 ed 01 1e 0e 1f 3a 16 10 00 74 06 1f ea 36

.......:...t...6

30008040: e7 00 f0 3d fb 54 75 05 8c d8 fb eb 1d 80 fc 08

...=.Tu.........

30008050: 75 1b e8 81 00 8a 36 13 00 fe ce 8b 0e 15 00 86

u.....6.........

30008060: cd c0 e1 06 0a 0e 11 00 31 c0 f8 eb 65 80 fc 02

........1...e...

30008070: 72 cb 80 fc 04 77 c6 60 80 cc 40 50 be 00 00 c7

r....w.`..@P....

30008080: 04 10 00 30 e4 89 44 02 89 5c 04 8c 44 06 66 31

...0..D..\..D.f1

30008090: c0 66 89 44 0c 88 f0 f6 26 11 00 88 cf 88 eb c0

.f.D....&.......

300080a0: ef 06 81 e1 3f 00 01 c8 48 89 c7 a1 13 00 f7 26

....?...H......&

300080b0: 11 00 f7 e3 01 f8 81 d2 00 00 89 44 08 89 54 0a

...........D..T.

300080c0: 58 30 c0 8a 16 10 00 e8 0c 00 88 26 03 00 61 a1

X0.........&..a.

300080d0: 02 00 1f ca 02 00 9c ff 1e 22 00 c3 80 fa 8f 7f

........."......

300080e0: 04 88 16 2d 06 be 87 07 e8 8d 00 be be 07 31 c0

...-..........1.

300080f0: b9 04 00 f6 04 80 74 03 40 89 f5 81 c6 10 00 e2

......t.@.......

30008100: f2 48 74 02 cd 18 bf 05 00 be 1d 06 c7 44 02 01

.Ht..........D..

30008110: 00 66 8b 46 08 66 89 44 08 b8 00 42 8a 16 2d 06

.f.F.f.D...B..-.

30008120: cd 13 73 0d 4f 74 49 30 e4 8a 16 2d 06 cd 13 eb

..s.OtI0...-....

30008130: d8 a1 fe 7d 3d 55 aa 75 37 fa 66 a1 4c 00 66 a3

...}=U.u7.f.L.f.

30008140: 3f 06 be 13 04 8b 04 48 89 04 c1 e0 06 8e c0 31

?......H.......1

30008150: ff be 1d 06 b9 60 00 fc f3 a5 c7 06 4c 00 17 00

.....`......L...

30008160: a3 4e 00 fb 8a 16 2d 06 89 ee fa ea 00 7c 00 00

.N....-......|..

30008170: be aa 07 e8 02 00 eb fe ac 20 c0 74 09 b4 0e bb

......... .t....

30008180: 07 00 cd 10 eb f2 c3 53 74 61 72 74 20 62 6f 6f

.......Start boo

30008190: 74 69 6e 67 20 66 72 6f 6d 20 55 53 42 20 64 65

ting from USB de

300081a0: 76 69 63 65 2e 2e 2e 0d 0a 00 42 6f 6f 74 20 66

vice......Boot f

300081b0: 61 69 6c 65 64 00 00 00 ea eb d4 ca 00 00 00 00

ailed...........

300081c0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

................

300081d0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

................

300081e0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 01

................

300081f0: 01 00 0c fe 7f ec 3f 00 00 00 c1 17 79 00 55 aa

......?.....y.U.

(9) SD卡(MMC)指令

SD卡的使用命令比较简单,只有初始化和设备信息的显示,读写是通过文件系统命令实现的。

mmc init [dev] - 初始化MMC子系统

mmc device [dev] - 查看和设置当前设备

使用和USB类似,在所有的命令使用前,必须先插入SD卡,然后使用:mmc init,以初始化MMC 控制器,获取设备信息。

我在mini2440中插入1GB SD卡:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# mmc init

mmc: Probing for SDHC ...

mmc: SD 2.0 or later card found

trying to detect SD Card...

Manufacturer: 0x00, OEM "roduct name: "

", revision 0.0

Serial number:

7864775

Manufacturing date: 11/2006

CRC:

0x4f, b0 = 1

READ_BL_LEN=6, C_SIZE_MULT=7, C_SIZE=4095

size = 0

SD Card detected RCA: 0x2 type: SD

mmc1 is available

[u-boot@MINI2440]# mmc device

mmc1 is current device

(10) FAT文件系统指令

fatinfo:显示文件系统的相关信息

格式:fatinfo <interface> <dev[:part]>

Interface:代表接口,如usb、mmc;

dev:代表设备编号,如0、1……;

part:代表存储设备中的分区,如1、2……。

fatload:从FAT32文件系统中读取二进制文件到SDRAM。

格式:fatload <interface> <dev[:part]>  <addr> <filename> [bytes]

Interface、dev和part同上;

addr:代表写入SDRAM的地址;

filename:代表存储设备中的文件名;

bytes:代表从存储设备中读取的文件大小,可不填;如果填的数据比文件小,就只读取bytes字节,如果填的数据比文件大,也只读取文件的大小。

fatls:列出FAT32文件系统中目录里的文件。

格式:fatls <interface> <dev[:part]> [directory]

Interface、dev和part同上;

directoryr:代表所要查看的目录,可不填,默认为/。

这些指令基本上要和U盘或者SD卡同时使用,主要用于读取这些移动存储器上的FAT32分区。

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb part 0

print_part of 0

Partition Map for USB device 0 -- Partition Type: DOS

Partition Start Sector Num Sectors Type

4 63 7935937 c

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatinfo usb 0:4

Interface: USB

Device 0: Vendor: Kingston Rev: PMAP Prod: DT 101 II

Type: Removable Hard Disk

Capacity: 3875.0 MB = 3.7 GB (7936000 x 512)

Partition 4: Filesystem: FAT32 "7600_16385_"

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatls usb 0:4

boot/

efi/

sources/

support/

upgrade/

43 autorun.inf

383562 bootmgr

111880 setup.exe

256220 u-boot.bin

4 file(s), 5 dir(s)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatls usb 0:4 /boot/

./

../

fonts/

zh-cn/

262144 bcd

3170304 boot.sdi

1024 bootfix.bin

97280 bootsect.exe

4096 etfsboot.com

485440 memtest.exe

6 file(s), 4 dir(s)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatload usb 0:4 0x30008000 u-boot.bin

reading u-boot.bin

........................

256220 bytes read

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatload usb 0:4 0x30008000 u-boot.bin 200

reading u-boot.bin

512 bytes read

(11) 系统引导指令

boot  和bootd  都是运行ENV”bootcmd”中指定的指令。

bootm 指令是专门用于启动在SDRAM中的用U-boot的mkimage工具处理过的内核映像。

格式:bootm [addr [arg ...]]

addr 是内核映像所在的SDRAM中的地址

当启动的是Linux内核时,'arg' 可以使 initrd 的地址。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# setenv bootcmd tftp\;bootm

[u-boot@MINI2440]# saveenv

Saving Environment to NAND...

Erasing Nand...

Erasing at 0x6000000000002 -- 0% complete.

Writing to Nand... done

[u-boot@MINI2440]# boot

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename 'zImage.img'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: T #################################################################

#################################################################

##########################

done

Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name: tekkaman

Created: 2010-03-29 12:59:51 UTC

Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size: 2277476 Bytes = 2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point: 30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2(crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010

CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177

CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache

Machine: MINI2440

(略)

U-Boot 2009.11 ( 4月 04 2010 - 12:09:25)

modified by tekkamanninja (tekkamanninja@163.com)

Love Linux

I2C: ready

DRAM: 64 MB

Flash: 2 MB

NAND: 128 MiB

Video: 240x320x16 20kHz 62Hz

In: serial

Out: serial

Err: serial

Net: dm9000

U-Boot 2009.11 ( 4月 04 2010 - 12:09:25)

modified by tekkamanninja

(tekkamanninja@163.com)

Love Linux

Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0

[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootd

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename 'zImage.img'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: T #################################################################

#################################################################

##########################

done

Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name: tekkaman

Created: 2010-03-29 12:59:51 UTC

Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size: 2277476 Bytes = 2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point: 30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

(略)

12)EEPROM 读写指令eeprom  - I2C 接口的EEPROM 读写指令

格式:

eeprom read  addr off cnt

eeprom write addr off cnt

第一个参数addr 是要写入或读出的数据在SDRAM中的存放地址;

第二个参数off 是在EEPROM中的偏移;

第三个参数cnt 是读写的数据字节数。

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x30008000 2

30008000: aa aa ..

[u-boot@MINI2440]# eeprom read 0x30008000 10 2

EEPROM @0x50 read: addr 30008000 off 0010 count 2 ... done

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x30008000 2

30008000: ff ff ..

[u-boot@MINI2440]# mm.b 0x30008000

30008000: ff ? aa

30008001: ff ? 55

30008002: aa ? q

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x30008000 2

30008000: aa 55 .U

[u-boot@MINI2440]# eeprom write 0x30008000 10 2

EEPROM @0x50 write: addr 30008000 off 0010 count 2 ... done

[u-boot@MINI2440]# eeprom read 0x30008010 10 2

EEPROM @0x50 read: addr 30008010 off 0010 count 2 ... done

[u-boot@MINI2440]# md.b 0x30008010 2

30008010: aa 55 .U

(13)设置和读取RTC指令

date    - 设置和读取RTC

格式:

date [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]

MM:月份

DD:日期

hh:小时

mm 分钟

CC:年份的前两个数字

YY:年份的后两个数字

ss:秒数

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# date

Date: 1980-00-06 (Thursday) Time: 20:30:25

[u-boot@MINI2440]# date 041100582010.20

Date: 2010-04-11 (Sunday) Time: 0:58:20

(14)脚本运行指令

run var [...]

var :ENV中的脚本名

使用范例:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# setenv a_run_test echo $bootfile \; version

[u-boot@MINI2440]# run a_run_test

zImage.img

U-Boot 2009.11 ( 4&aelig;œˆ 04 2010 - 12:09:25)

(15)系统重启指令

reset

- 重启CPU

[u-boot@MINI2440]# reset

resetting ...

U-Boot 2009.11 ( 4&aelig;œˆ 04 2010 - 12:09:25)

modified by tekkamanninja (tekkamanninja@163.com)

Love Linux

I2C: ready

DRAM: 64 MB

Flash: 2 MB

NAND: 128 MiB

Video: 240x320x16 20kHz 62Hz

In: serial

Out: serial

Err: serial

Net: dm9000

U-Boot 2009.11 ( 4&aelig;œˆ 04 2010 - 12:09:25)

modified by tekkamanninja

(tekkamanninja@163.com)

Love Linux

Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0

[u-boot@MINI2440]#

四、U-boot的使用(四)

下载与烧写

使用U-boot将映像文件烧写到板上的Flash,一般步骤是:

(1)通过网络、串口、U盘、SD卡等方式将文件传输到SDRAM;

(2)使用Nand Flash或Nor Flash相关的读写命令将SDRAM中的数据烧入Flash。

下面是烧写范例:

如果使用 SD卡和U盘形式更新U-boot,那么首先SD卡和U盘中必须有FAT32文件系统,并在里面存放了u-boot.bin 文件。

1) 通过SD卡烧入Nand Flash:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# mmc init

mmc: Probing for SDHC ...

mmc: SD 2.0 or later card found

trying to detect SD Card...

Manufacturer:

0x00, OEM "roduct name:

"

", revision 0.0

Serial number:

7864775

Manufacturing date: 11/2006

CRC:

0x4f, b0 = 1

READ_BL_LEN=6, C_SIZE_MULT=7, C_SIZE=4095

size = 0

SD Card detected RCA: 0x2 type: SD

mmc1 is available

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatload mmc 1 0x30008000 u-boot.bin

reading u-boot.bin

256220 bytes read

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand erase 0 0x40000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Erasing at 0x2000000000004 --

0% complete.

OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand write 0x30008000 0 0x40000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Writing at 0x2000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 262144 bytes written: OK

2) 通过U盘烧入Nor Flash:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb start

(Re)start USB...

USB:

scanning bus for devices... 2 USB Device(s) found

scanning bus for storage devices... 1 Storage Device(s) found

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb storage

Device 0: Vendor: Kingston Rev: PMAP Prod: DT 101 II

Type: Removable Hard Disk

Capacity: 3875.0 MB = 3.7 GB (7936000 x 512)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# usb part 0

print_part of 0

Partition Map for USB device 0

--

Partition Type: DOS

Partition

Start Sector

Num Sectors

Type

4

63

7935937

c

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatload usb 0:4 0x30008000 u-boot.bin

reading u-boot.bin

........................

256220 bytes read

[u-boot@MINI2440]# protect off all

Un-Protect Flash Bank # 1

[u-boot@MINI2440]# erase 0x0 0x3ffff

Erasing sector

0 ... ok.

Erasing sector

1 ... ok.

Erasing sector

2 ... ok.

Erasing sector

3 ... ok.

Erased 4 sectors

[u-boot@MINI2440]# cp.b 0x30008000 0x0

0x3ffff

Copy to Flash... done

3) 通过TFTP服务烧入Nand Flash:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# tftpboot 30008000 192.168.1.100:u-boot.bin

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename 'u-boot.bin'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: T ##################

done

Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand erase 0 0x40000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Erasing at 0x2000000000004 --

0% complete.

OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand write 0x30008000 0 0x40000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Writing at 0x2000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 262144 bytes written: OK

4) 通过NFS 服务烧入Nand Flash:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nfs 30008000 192.168.1.100:/home/tekkaman/development/share/u-boot.bin

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

File transfer via NFS from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename '/home/tekkaman/development/share/u-boot.bin'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: ###################################################

done

Bytes transferred = 256220 (3e8dc hex)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand erase 0 0x40000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Erasing at 0x2000000000004 --

0% complete.

OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand write 0x30008000 0 0x40000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x40000

Writing at 0x2000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 262144 bytes written: OK

内核引导

内核的引导步骤如下:

(1)用U-boot的mkimage工具处理内核映像zImage。

(2)通过网络、串口、U盘、SD卡等方式将处理过的内核映像传输到SDRAM的一定位置(一般使用0x30008000)

(3)然后使用”bootm"等内核引导命令来启动内核。

为什么要用U-boot的mkimage工具处理内核映像zImage?

因为在用bootm命令引导内核的时候,bootm需要读取一个64字节的文件头,来获取这个内核映象所针对的CPU体系结构、OS、加载到内存中的位置、在内存中入口点的位置以及映象名等等信息。这样bootm才能为OS设置好启动环境,并跳入内核映象的入口点。而mkimage就是添加这个文件头的专用工具。具体的实现请看U-boot中bootm的源码和mkimage的源码。

mkimage工具的使用:

参数说明:

-A 指定CPU的体系结构,可用值有:alpha、arm

、x86、ia64、mips、mips64、ppc 、s390、sh、sparc 、sparc64、m68k等

-O 指定操作系统类型,可用值有:openbsd、netbsd、freebsd、4_4bsd、linux、svr4、esix、solaris、irix、sco、dell、ncr、lynxos、vxworks、psos、qnx、u-boot、rtems、artos

-T 指定映象类型,可用值有:standalone、kernel、ramdisk、multi、firmware、script、filesystem

-C 指定映象压缩方式,可用值有:

none

不压缩(一般使用这个,因为zImage是已经被bzip2压缩过的自解压内核)

gzip 用gzip的压缩方式

bzip2 用bzip2的压缩方式

-a 指定映象在内存中的加载地址,映象下载到内存中时,要按照用mkimage制作映象时,这个参数所指定的地址值来下载

-e

指定映象运行的入口点地址,这个地址就是-a参数指定的值加上0x40(因为前面有个mkimage添加的0x40个字节的头)

-n

指定映象名

-d 指定制作映象的源文件

以下是制作内核映像的命令示例:

mkimage -n 'tekkaman' -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x30008000 -e 0x30008040 -d zImage zImage.img

以下是使用范例:

1) 通过SD卡引导内核:

首先SD卡中必须有FAT32文件系统,并在里面存放了处理过的内核映像文件。

[u-boot@MINI2440]# mmc init

mmc: Probing for SDHC ...

mmc: SD 2.0 or later card found

trying to detect SD Card...

Manufacturer:

0x00, OEM "roduct name:

"

", revision 0.0

Serial number:

7864775

Manufacturing date: 11/2006

CRC:

0x4f, b0 = 1

READ_BL_LEN=6, C_SIZE_MULT=7, C_SIZE=4095

size = 0

SD Card detected RCA: 0x2 type: SD

mmc1 is available

[u-boot@MINI2440]# fatload mmc 1 30008000 zImage.img

reading zImage.img

2277540 bytes read

[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootm 30008000

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name:

tekkaman

Created:

2010-03-29

12:59:51 UTC

Image Type:

ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size:

2277476 Bytes =

2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point:

30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010

CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177

CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache

Machine: MINI2440

(略)

2) 通过TFTP服务引导内核:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# tftpboot 0x30008000 192.168.1.100:zImage.img

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

TFTP from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename 'zImage.img'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: T #################################################################

done

Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootm 30008000

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name:

tekkaman

Created:

2010-03-29

12:59:51 UTC

Image Type:

ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size:

2277476 Bytes =

2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point:

30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010

CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177

CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache

Machine: MINI2440

(略)

3) 通过NFS服务引导内核:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nfs 30008000 192.168.1.100:/home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

File transfer via NFS from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename '/home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: #################################################################

done

Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootm 30008000

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name:

tekkaman

Created:

2010-03-29

12:59:51 UTC

Image Type:

ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size:

2277476 Bytes =

2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point:

30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010

CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177

CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache

Machine: MINI2440

(略)

4) 通过Nand Flash引导内核:

首先要将处理过的内核映像文件烧入Nand Flash的一定位置(由内核分区表决定)。以后每次启动时用Nand Flash的读取命令先将这个内核映像文件读到内存的一定位置(由制作内核映像时的-a参数决定),再使用bootm命令引导内核。

内核映像文件的烧入:

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nfs 30008000 192.168.1.100:/home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img

dm9000 i/o: 0x20000300, id: 0x90000a46

DM9000: running in 16 bit mode

MAC: 08:08:11:18:12:27

operating at 100M full duplex mode

Using dm9000 device

File transfer via NFS from server 192.168.1.100; our IP address is 192.168.1.101

Filename '/home/tekkaman/development/share/zImage.img'.

Load address: 0x30008000

Loading: #################################################################

done

Bytes transferred = 2277540 (22c0a4 hex)

[u-boot@MINI2440]# nand erase 0x80000 0x300000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x80000, size 0x300000

Erasing at 0x36000001800000 --

0% complete.

OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]#

nand write 30008000 0x80000 300000

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x80000, size 0x300000

Writing at 0x36000000020000 -- 100% is complete. 3145728 bytes written: OK

内核引导:

[u-boot@MINI2440]#

nand read 30008000 0x80000 300000

NAND read: device 0 offset 0x80000, size 0x300000

3145728 bytes read: OK

[u-boot@MINI2440]# bootm 30008000

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 30008000 ...

Image Name:

tekkaman

Created:

2010-03-29

12:59:51 UTC

Image Type:

ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

Data Size:

2277476 Bytes =

2.2 MB

Load Address: 30008000

Entry Point:

30008040

Verifying Checksum ... OK

XIP Kernel Image ... OK

OK

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.33.1 (tekkaman@MAGI-Linux) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.6.1-tekkaman) ) #5 Mon Mar 29 20:58:50 CST 2010

CPU: ARM920T [41129200] revision 0 (ARMv4T), cr=c0007177

CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache

Machine: MINI2440

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