本章内容:

  • Configuring the Environment for RMAN Backups    配置RMAN环境
  • Configuring RMAN to Make Backups to a Media Manager 备份到介质管理器
  • Configuring the Fast Recovery Area    配置快速恢复区
  • Configuring the Backup Retention Policy    配置备份保留策略
  • Backup Optimization and the CONFIGURE command    备份优化
  • Configuring an Archived Redo Log Deletion Policy    配置归档日志删除策略
  • Configuring RMAN in a Data Guard Environment    在DG下配置RMAN

1.Configuring the Environment for RMAN Backups 
    本节内容:
  • Showing and Clearing Persistent RMAN Configurations    查看和清除RMAN配置
  • Configuring the Default Device for Backups: Disk or SBT    配置默认备份设备:磁盘或SBT
  • Configuring the Default Type for Backups: Backup Sets or Copies    设置备份类型:备份集或镜像
  • Configuring Channels    配置通道
  • Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups    配置文件和控制文件自动备份

    1)Showing and Clearing Persistent RMAN Configurations    查看和清除RMAN配置
    用show all显示所有的配置
RMAN>show all

使用目标数据库控制文件替代恢复目录

db_unique_name 为 ORCL11G 的数据库的 RMAN 配置参数为:

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default

CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK;

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F'; # default

CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET; # default

CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default

CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'BZIP2'; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE; # default

CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO 'D:\APP\WJ\PRODUCT\11.1.0\DB_1\DATABASE\SNCFORCL11G.ORA'; # default

​    显示某个配置
RMAN> show retention policy;


db_unique_name 为 ORCL11G 的数据库的 RMAN 配置参数为:

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default

    清除配置 CONFIGURE XX CLEAR,清除配置后,变成默认值

CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION CLEAR;
CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY CLEAR;
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK CLEAR;



    2)Configuring the Default Device for Backups: Disk or SBT  设备备份设备磁盘或磁带
    没有指定备份到磁盘或磁带时会使用默认的设置.
    
Command Explanation

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK  备份到磁盘

Specifies that backups should go to disk by default.  配置后默认备份到磁盘

If a recovery area is enabled, then the backup location defaults to the fast recovery area. Otherwise, the backup location defaults to an operating system-specific directory on disk.

When backing up to disk, the logical block size of the database file must be an even multiple of the physical block size of the destination device. For example, a device of type DISK with a block size of 2 kilobytes can only be used as a destination for backups of database files with logical block sizes of 2 KB, 4 KB, 6 KB, and so on. Most disk drives have physical block sizes of 512 bytes, so this limitation rarely affects backup to disk drives. Nevertheless, you can encounter this limitation when backing up to a writable DVD or a device that has a larger physical block size.

如果配置了FRA,不指定路径时就备份到FRA.当备份到磁盘时,逻辑块的大小必须是物理块大小的数据倍.

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO sbt 备份到磁带

Specifies that backups should go to tape by default.

"Configuring RMAN to Make Backups to a Media Manager" explains how to set up RMAN for use with a media manager. After RMAN can communicate with the media manager, you can configure RMAN to make backups to tape and specify SBT as the default device type.

配置后默认备份到磁带.
在备份时可以指定备份
BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt DATABASE;
BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK DATABASE;



3)Configuring the Default Type for Backups: Backup Sets or Copies 备份成备份集还是镜像
备份集可以写在磁盘和磁带上,而镜像只能写在磁盘上.
设置备份类型
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO COPY; # image copies
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET; # uncompressed

设备备份类型并启用压缩备份
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET;
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET;



4)Configuring Channels  配置通道
两种方式配置通道:configure channel或者allocate channel,allocate只在本次备份时有用,是临时的配置
注意:configure channel会覆盖上次configure channel的配置,如
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK MAXPIECESIZE 2G;
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT /tmp/%U;

在执行第二个命令后,第 一个命令的 MAXPIECESIZE 2G 将会设置为默认值


<1>Configuring Channels for Disk配置磁盘通道
默认情况下,rman会配置一个通道执行所有操作,可以修改默认通道的选项,如设置备份位置;
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/disk1/ora_df%t_s%s_s%p';

%t表示备份的时间,%s表示备份集的序号,%p表示备份片的序号
注意:如果指定了format选项,则rman不会将备份保存到FRA中.

配置备份集到ASM
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '+dgroup1';



<2>Configuring Parallel Channels for Disk and SBT Devices 配置并行度
通道的个数决定了备份时的并行度.一般规则是,通道的个数与备份设备的个数相匹配,如一个通道对应一个磁带驱动器,一个通道对应一个磁盘驱动器.错误的不配置不利于备份的I/O性能
在配置sbt时,可以设置并行度
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt PARALLELISM 2;
 
old RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET PARALLELISM 1;
new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' PARALLELISM 2 BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET;
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

同时设置并行度和备份类型:
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
 
old RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' PARALLELISM 2 BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET;
new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET PARALLELISM 2;
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

注意:使用configure device type命令时,只进行指定的修改,不会修改以前配置过的. 上面的配置中, COMPRESSED 选项是有效的

5)Manually Overriding Configured Channels手工覆盖默认通道配置
手动分配通道时,会覆盖默认的通道配置
RUN
{
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  BACKUP TABLESPACE users;
}

这时只会使用手动分配的通道c1


6)Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups设置控制文件和spfile自动备份
配置控制文件和spfile文件自动备份后,当有新的备份信息时就会自动备份控制文件,在数据库结构变化(如新增加数据文件)时,也会备份控制文件.使用控制文件和参数文件自动备份后,即使当前的控制文件\参数文件和catalog丢失,也能恢复.
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF;


7)Configuring the Control File Autobackup Format 设置控制文件自动备份格式
自动备份的控制文件和spfile以%F做为格式,F%表示c-IIIIIIIIII-YYYYMMDD-QQ   IIIIIIIIII表示DBID YYYYMMDD表示日期 QQ 是16进制的数字,从00到FF.
还有其它的格式,如D%,使用其它的格式不能一定能使用自动备份的控制文件和spfile
可以改变备份格式:
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT
  FOR DEVICE TYPE

deviceSpecifier TO 'string';


deviceSpecifier   表示备份设备disk或type string 表示路径,必须%F,如:
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT
  FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '?/oradata/cf_%F';

保存到ASM
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT
  FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '+dgroup1/%F';

清除某种设备的自动备份文件格式:
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK CLEAR;
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt CLEAR;


8)Overriding the Configured Control File Autobackup Format  覆盖自动备份文件格式
有本种方法
  1. SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT (within a RUN block)     RUN块内
  2. SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT (at RMAN prompt)    提示符下
  3. CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT     configure命令
如:
SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 'controlfile_%F';
BACKUP AS COPY DATABASE;
RUN
{
  SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '/tmp/%F.bck';
  BACKUP AS BACKUPSET
    DEVICE TYPE DISK
    DATABASE;
}




2.Configuring RMAN to Make Backups to a Media Manager  备份到介质管理器
本节讲如何备份到第三方的介质管理器,包含以下内容:
  1. Prerequisites for Using a Media Manager with RMAN     事先准备
  2. Determining the Location of the Media Management Library    介质管理器的库文件位置
  3. Configuring Media Management Software for RMAN Backups    设置介质管理软件
  4. Testing Whether the Media Manager Library Is Integrated Correctly    检查介质管理器库是否完整
  5. Configuring SBT Channels for Use with a Media Manager    配置SBT通道

1)Prerequisites for Using a Media Manager with RMAN 准备
将介质管理器安装到数据库服务器或网络上,以便能连接到RMAN,确保服务器能读写这个设备.然后安装介质管理模块(Then, obtain and install the third-party media management module for integration with the database server),这个模块包含了RMAN可以加载的介质管理库.

2)Determining the Location of the Media Management Library 查找介质管理库的位置
在使用SBT备份时,要指定SBT_LIBRARY参数:
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE sbt
  PARMS 'SBT_LIBRARY=pathname';

如果没有指定介质管理库的位置,RMAN会寻找一些默认的位置,在linux和unix上
/opt/oracle/extapi/[32,64]/{SBT}/{VENDOR}/{VERSION}/libobk.so

文件的后缀:
.so, .sl on HP-UX,
.a on AIX,
windows下:
%SYSTEM_DRIVE%\oracle\extapi\[32,64]\{SBT}\{VENDOR}\{VERSION}\orasbt.dll

如果以上位置找不到,RMAN会从$PATH和$LIBPATH寻找.如果OS设置不允许查找PATH和$LIBPATH,设置SBT_SECURE=1

3)Configuring Media Management Software for RMAN Backups 配置介质管理软件
根据不同的介质管理软件,可能以设置介质池\用户\类等.
参数PARMS 向介质管理器发送说明信息.下面展示用Oracle Secure Backup 做介质管理器时设置PARMS 参数备份到叫datafile_mf的磁带组:
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
  PARMS 'ENV=(OB_MEDIA_FAMILY=datafile_mf)';


4)Testing Whether the Media Manager Library Is Integrated Correctly 检查介质管理器正确性
测试分配通道:
RUN
{
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE sbt
    PARMS 'SBT_LIBRARY=/mydir/lib/libobk.so,
    ENV=(OB_DEVICE=drive1,OB_MEDIA_FAMILY=datafile_mf)';
}

检查输出,如果没有收到ORA-27211错误,说明介质管理器可用:
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03009: failure of allocate command on c1 channel at 11/30/2007 13:57:18
ORA-19554: error allocating device, device type: SBT_TAPE, device name:
ORA-27211: Failed to load Media Management Library
Additional information: 25

检查介质管理器安装情况,检查SBT_LIBRARY是否正确.
任何时间,分配通道出错,都会记录在自动诊断库(ADR)中:
SKGFQ OSD: Error in function sbtinit on line 2278
SKGFQ OSD: Look for SBT Trace messages in file /oracle/rdbms/log/sbtio.log
SBT Initialize failed for /oracle/lib/libobk.so

修复问题后,执行一次备份测试;
RUN
{
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE sbt
    PARMS 'SBT_LIBRARY=/mydir/lib/libobk.so,
    ENV=(OB_DEVICE=drive1,OB_MEDIA_FAMILY=datafile_mf)';
  RESTORE SPFILE TO PFILE '/tmp/test_restore.f';
  # If your database does not use a server parameter file, use:
  # RESTORE CURRENT CONTROLFILE TO '/tmp/test_restore.f';
}


5)Configuring SBT Channels for Use with a Media Manager 配置SBT通道
介质管理器上备份片的名称
备份片的名称由FORMAT控制,介质管理器将备份片当作一个文件,所以每个文件都要不同名.一般情况下命名格式可以使用%U,如果不指定备份片文件名格式,RMAN自动按照U%来设置.同时注意介质管理器支持的文件名格式.
配置默认的备份设备并配置SBT通道
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO sbt;
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE sbt
  PARMS 'ENV=(OB_RESOURCE_WAIT_TIME=1minute,OB_DEVICE=tape1)';

如果有多个磁带驱动器,设置并行度:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt PARALLELISM 2;

检查通道选项:
SHOW CHANNEL FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt

执行备份:
backup database;


2.Configuring the Fast Recovery Area 配置快速恢复区
FRA是存放备份相关文件磁盘空间,ORACLE建议使用FRA,本节主讲:
  1. Overview of the Fast Recovery Area FRA概述
  2. Enabling the Fast Recovery Area    开启FRA
  3. Disabling the Fast Recovery Area 关闭FRA
  4. Configuring Locations for Control Files and Redo Logs 设置控制文件和日志文件位置
  5. Configuring RMAN File Creation in the Fast Recovery Area    配置备份到FRA

1)Overview of the Fast Recovery Area FRA概述   
FRA包含控制文件\日志文件\归档日志文件\数据文件\备份文件,其它数据库使用的文件永久放在FRA中,备份文件和归档日志暂时放在FRA中,在备份文件过期后,RMAN可以删除过期文件.FRA是ORACLE管理的空间,ORACLE可以控制FRA的大小和文件的命名.
FRA的文件如下:
Files Type Database Behavior When Fast Recovery Area Is Inaccessible

Multiplexed copies of the current control file

Permanent

The instance fails if the database cannot write to a multiplexed copy of the control file stored in the fast recovery area. Failure occurs even if accessible multiplexed copies are located outside the recovery area.如果控制文件不可读,则实例崩溃

See Also: "Configuring Control File Locations" to learn how to configure control files in the recovery area

Online redo log files

Permanent

Instance availability is not affected if a mirrored copy of the online redo log exists in an accessible location outside the fast recovery area. Otherwise, the instance fails.

如果一个日志组中的所有日志不可读写,则实例崩溃,只要有一个可读写,实例就可以运行.

See Also: "Configuring Online Redo Log Locations" to learn how to configure online redo logs in the recovery area

Archived redo log files

Transient

Instance availability is not affected if the log is archived to an accessible location outside the fast recovery area. Otherwise, the database eventually halts because it cannot archive the online redo logs.

See Also: "Configuring Archived Redo Log Locations" to learn how to configure archived redo logs in the recovery area

Foreign archived redo log files

Transient

Instance availability is not affected.

Note: Foreign archived redo logs are received by a logical standby database for a LogMiner session. Unlike a normal archived log, a foreign archived redo log is associated with a different DBID. For this reason, it cannot be backed up or restored on a logical standby database.

Image copies of data files and control files

Transient

Instance availability is not affected.

Backup pieces

Transient

Instance availability is not affected.

Flashback logs

Transient

Instance availability is not affected if guaranteed restore points are not defined. In this case, the database automatically disables Flashback Database, writes a message to the alert log, and continues with database processing. If guaranteed restore points are configured, the instance fails because of interdependencies on the flashback logs.

The Oracle Flashback Database feature, which provides a convenient alternative to database point-in-time recovery (DBPITR), generates flashback logs. These logs are transient files and must be stored in the fast recovery area. Unlike other transient files, flashback logs cannot be backed up to other media. If the fast recovery area has insufficient space to store flashback logs and meet other backup retention requirements, then the recovery area may delete flashback logs.

See Also: "Enabling Flashback Database" to learn how to enable flashback logging




内容比较多,先写到这,明天继续

















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